In order to initiate transition processes at the user level, it is necessary in a first step to find and analyse explanatory approaches for traffic behaviour on an individual basis. There exists already a large number of action models from different scientific disciplines and with different emphases. While, for example, in economic behavioral models individual attitudes and preferences play no role and an individual is considered to be interchangeable with them, socio-psychological explanatory models concentrate precisely on this influence of attitudes, perceptions, norms and values1Seebauer, Sebastian (2011): Individuelles Mobilitätsverhalten in Großstädten. Erklärungsmodell und Veränderungsmöglichkeiten für die Nutzung öffentlicher Verkehrsmittel. Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades an der naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. on the behavior of individuals.
In a second step, it is necessary to accompany behavioral changes at the user level through intervention strategies. There are different forms of intervention strategies for influencing behavior such as behavioral offers, action incentives, knowledge transfer, etc., which may also diverge depending on the user groups and their characteristics, attitudes and behavioral patterns.
Individual Mobility Behaviour and Transition Model at User Level
Mobility behaviour depends on a variety of influencing factors, such as the housing facility location and transport infrastructure as a prerequisite for behavioural alternatives, the type of route, money, time and convenience factors, as well as personal attitude and value patterns. All these diverse factors lead to the formation of certain habits in mobility behaviour. For a comprehensive change in behaviour, it is at the same time a goal and a challenge to break these habits and thus create space for behavioural alternatives. To achieve this, it is necessary to provide external support both through broad-based measures and through target group-orientated intervention. Ideally, this intervention should be comprised of a diversity of measures, as well as include participatory processes.
Participation and target group orientation are strategies that additionally support behavioural change. Experts agree that the involvement of citizens is necessary to achieve an actual change in behaviour: such participation – implemented correctly – increases acceptance of measures, which is seen as a prerequisite for their implementation and practice, thus ensuring the occurrence of future further steps being taken. One challenge of participatory processes is also that of enabling participation. Often, both decision-makers and users behave irrationally towards change in the mobility sector, and it takes time for the advantages of new alternatives to be recognized.
Targeted measures can be best implemented primarily on a small scale, for example, at the regional level, to best be able to take existing framework conditions into account. Therefore, it seems to make sense to establish independent institutions at regional levels that are dedicated to the question of finding regional mobility solutions with the active involvement of the population and relevant actors in the decision-making, planning and implementation of measures.